Значение исследования Космоса на современном этапе

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ЦЕЛИ ЗАНЯТИЯ:

  • Образовательные: развивать и систематизировать умения учащихся на основе приобретенных знаний в английском языке; развивать умение читать текст и воспринимать научно-популярную информацию по данной теме.
  • Развивающие: развивать языковую догадку; логическое мышление; память и внимание; развивать интерес к достижениям науки и техники; расширить кругозор.
  • Воспитательные: формировать у учащихся чувство товарищества; навыки межличностного общения; воспитывать познавательный интерес к современным открытиям и технологиям.

ЗАДАЧИ ЗАНЯТИЯ: применение знаний английского языка при изучении научно-популярной литературы; пополнение словарного запаса по теме.

ОСНАЩЕНИЕ ЗАНЯТИЯ: компьютер; проектор; раздаточный материал; презентация.

ХОД ЗАНЯТИЯ

Организационный этап

The teacher: Hello, dear friends! Our today’s lesson is dedicated to the Cosmonautics Day, which is celebrated on the 12th of April.

Teacher: When do you think people started exploring space?  - (Students: Since ancient times.)

Teacher: What were the first attempts in flying into space? What animals flew into space? - (Students: First October, 1957, dog Laika was sent into space on board “Sputnik 2”. Then August, 1960 dogs Belka and Strelka were sent into space on board “Sputnik 5”.  The flight lasted more than 25 hours, orbiting the Earth 17 times)

Teacher: The first flight into space, made by the Soviet citizen Yuri Gagarin, lasted 108 minutes. It was … - (Students: on the 12th of April 1961)

Teacher: How long did the first flight last? When was it? - (Students: 108 minutes April, 12,1961)

Основной этап

Teacher: What do you think are advantages and disadvantages of space exploration? Let’s comment on this.
Развитие диалогической речи.
На экране - таблица «за» и «против» освоения космоса.  Студенты составляют мини-диалоги, обсуждая тему.

One point of view (disadvantages)

A contrary point of view (advantages)

  1. Space exploration ought to be abandoned (откладываться) until more important problems of mankind have been solved
  2. space exploration is very expensive
  3. food production is far more important than Mars studies or Moon walks;
  4. it is immoral to spend huge sums of money on space exploration while millions of people suffer hunger;
  5. space exploration is useless anyway because we can’t colonize other planets
  6. it would be much better to colonize, for example, the Sahara before trying to colonize the Moon or Mars;
  7. mankind must not waste its resources
  1. Space exploration is of great significance for scientific and technological development;
  2. space exploration gives man new knowledge that we can use for other purposes;
  3. we may find 10,000 things to do on the ISS that nobody has thought of or even imagined

Развитие навыков чтения технического текста

Teacher: And now you are going to read the text “Made in Space” but first let’s do some pre-reading tasks.       

  
Pre-reading vocabulary task 1. Here is the vocabulary of the text. Read and try to memorize the words.

  • superconductors – сверхпроводники;
  • semiconductors – полупроводники;
  • alloys – сплавы;
  • peculiar – особый;
  • properties – свойства;
  • quality – качество;
  • estimate – оценивать;
  • conditions – условия;
  • surface – поверхность;
  • weightlessness – невесомость;
  • satellite – спутник; absence – отсутствие;
  • manned – пилотируемый;
  • unmanned – беспилотный;
  • obtain – получать;
  • research – исследования;
  • acceleration – ускорение;
  • reduce – уменьшать, снижать;
  • independent – независимый;
  • approach – приближаться;
  • equipment – оборудование;
  • replace – заменять;
  • specimen – образец, экземпляр, проба;
  • preparatory – подготовительный;
  • estimates – оценки;
  • supertransparent laser glass – сверхпрозрачное лазерное стекло;
  • to pave the way – проложить путь: on board (a spacecraft) – на борту (космического корабля);
  • to simulate – моделировать, имитировать;
  • to cancel out – уничтожать, уравновешивать;
  • stable-state – устойчивое состояние;
  • in case of melts – в случае расплавов;
  • gravitational convection – гравитационная конвекция (перенос тепла под действием силы тяжести);
  • gene engineering – генная инженерия

Pre-reading vocabulary task 2. Match the highlighted words in the text to their definitions. What are these words in Russian?

  1. A metal that is made by combining two or more metals.
  2. The force that makes any two objects that have mass move towards each other. The most common example of this is when an object falls to the ground: the laws of gravity.
  3. to get something that you want or need, especially by going through a process that is difficult.
  4. Having no weight, especially because of being outside the Earth’s atmosphere.
  5. The power of a vehicle to increase its speed.
  6. The force that moves or pushes something forward.
  7. A metal that allows electricity to pass through it without any resistance at very low temperatures.
  8. Facts or information used for making calculations or decisions.
  9. To move closer to someone or something.
  10. An example of something, especially of a plant or an animal.

Teacher: Now, dear friends, you are ready to read the text.

MADE IN SPACE

This label “made in Space” for industrial materials will probably surprise no one in the not so distant future. They may include superconductors, new kinds of alloys, substances with peculiar magnetic properties, supertransparent laser glass, polymers, plastics, and so on. Numerous experiments carried out at the Russian orbital space stations have paved the way to the development of methods and means of industrial production of new materials of better quality on board a spacecraft. Experts estimate that within a few coming years industrial production of various materials wil be started in space.

Conditions on board a space vehicle orbiting Earth greatly differ from those on its surface. However, all of these conditions can be simulated on Earth, except for one – prolonged weightlessness. Weightlessness can be created on Earth, but only for a few seconds. A space flight is another matter: a satellite orbiting Earth is in a dynamic zero-gravity state, i.e., when gravity is cancelled out by inertia.

What can weightlessness be used for? Many well-known processes go on differently due to the absence of weight. The Archimedes principle is no longer valid and, consequently, stable-state liquid mixtures can be obtained, the components of which would immediately separate on Earth because of different density. In case of melts of metals, glasses or semiconductors, they can be cooled down to the solidification point even in space and then brought back to Earth. Such materials will possess quite unusual qualities.

In space there is no gravitational convection, i.e., movements of gases or liquids caused by difference of temperatures. It is well-known that various defects in semiconductors occur because of convection. Biochemists also have to deal with the worst aspects of convection, for example, in the production of superpure biologically active substances. Convection makes it very different on Earth.

Following the launch of the first orbital stations the specialists started experiments aimed at proving the advantages of the zero-gravity state for the production of certain materials. Since 1976 over 600 technological experiments have been carried out on board manned and unmanned space vehicles.

The experiments proved that many of the properties of the materials obtained under the zero-gravity condition were much better than those produced on Earth. Besides, it has been established that it is necessary to develop a new science in industry – physics of the weightless state – which forms the theoretical basis for space and space materials study. This science has basically been developed. The methods of mathematical modeling of the hydromechanical process under the zero-gravity condition have been created with the help of computers.

Special space vehicles will also be needed for industrial production of new-generation materials. Research has shown that the acceleration rate on board these vehicles must be reduced to the minimum. It was found that space platforms in independent flight carrying the equipment were most suitable for producing materials. These vehicles will have to use their own propulsion systems to approach their base orbital stations after a certain period of time. The cosmonauts on board the station can replace the specimens. Many new and very interesting projects are planned for orbital stations. Here is one of them.

Convection does not allow to grow large protein crystals on Earth. But it is possible to grow such crystals under the zero-gravity condition and to study their structure. The data obtained during the experiments can be useful for the work of laboratories on Earth in using the methods of gene engineering. Thus, it may be possible to make new materials in space and also to obtain valuable scientific data for new highly efficient technologies on Earth.

Preparatory work for industrial production in space at a larger scale is being carried out in Russia, the USA, Western Europe and Japan. It should be said that according to the estimates of American experts production of materials in space is to bring 60 billion dollars in the future.

Teacher: Let’s continue our vocabulary practice. The next task for you is to match the numbers with the letters to make word combinations.

  1. Distant …
  2. Magnetic …
  3. Supertransparent laser …
  4. Numerous …
  5. Industrial …
  6. Prolonged …
  7. Zero-gravity …
  8. Different …
  9. Solidification …
  10. Unusual …
  11. Orbital …
  12. Zero-gravity …
  13. Space …
  14. Propulsion …

a. experiments
b. glass
c. production
d. future
e. properties
f. density
g. system
h. weightlessness
i. vehicles
j. condition
k. point
l. qualities
m. stations
n. state

Совершенствование навыков разговорной речи

Teacher: So, let’s have a talk on the text. Try to answer the questions. You can look through the text for finding the answers.

  1. What is the text about?
  2. Have you seen the label “Made in Space” anywhere?
  3. Why can’t certain materials be produced on Earth?
  4. Can all the conditions on board a space vehicle be simulated on Earth?
  5. When will it be possible to start industrial production of materials in space? What do you think about it? Can we start such production now?
  6. Why can we obtain materials of better quality in space?
  7. What equipment is needed for producing materials in space?
  8. How will this equipment operate?

Учитель: So, you have learnt about one advantage of developing space programs. But there are more things that came into use in our everyday life which were discovered, invented or developed thanks to the space exploration. We’ll learn about them from the following presentation.

(Перед просмотром презентации студенты предварительно знакомятся со словами, которые могут быть им незнакомы): Taurus – Телец, Leo - Лев, Virgo - Дева, Aquila - Орел, Ursa Major/Minor - Большая/Малая Медведица, weightlessness - невесомость, moon rock samples - образцы лунного грунта, plasma arc-welding - дуговая плазменная сварка, alloy - сплав, beam - луч, dissolve - растворять, tissue – ткань, surgery - хирургия, semiconductor - полупроводник, possess quite unusual qualities - обладать необычными свойствами, pave the way - проложить путь, fiberglass - стекловолокно, prediction - прогнозирование, application – применение.

Демонстрация презентации «The History of Space Exploration and Application Space Tech  in everyday life».

После презентации.

Teacher:  So, dear friends, let’s sum up all the pros and cons of the topic we have discussed today.  What is your conclusion? (Suggested answers of the students: In spite the fact that mankind still faces numerous more or less serious problems still we can claim that space exploration is really necessary. It develops technical progress and people greatly benefit from it.)

Teacher: If you search the Internet you will find some more applications of space technologies in our life. This will be your home task for the next time.
Dear friends! Today you worked hard during the lesson, your answers were fine. You have also enriched your vocabulary, learnt some new facts and now you are able to discuss and dispute on the problem.

Good bye.

Thank you.

Литература.

  1.  «Учебник английского языка для технических университетов и вузов» И.В.Орловская и др.
  2. Сайт SPACE CARO 1120.HUBPAGES.COM
  3. Macmillan English Dictionary for advanced learners.
  4. Wikipedia
  5. Read more: http://www.ehow.com/list_7350873_space-inventions-used-earth.html
  6. “Macmillan Exam Skills for Russia” Елена Клековкина и др.
  7. Practice Tests for the Russian State Exam” Elena Klekovkina, Malcolm Mann, Steve Taylore-Knowels
  8.  «Большой современный англо-русский словарь» В.К.Мюллер
  9. Yandex. картинки
  10. www.alhimik.ru
  11. http://space.rin.ru/ Астрономия древних цивилизации.
  12. https://www.space.com/11272-nasa-space-technology-spinoffs.html