Проектная работа на английском языке по теме "Суеверия и предрассудки в Великобритании и России" для школьной научно-практической конференции

Разделы: Иностранные языки, Конкурс «Презентация к уроку», Руководство учебным проектом


Презентация к уроку

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 Выполнил:
Цырков Никита Андреевич
ученик 10Д класса

Руководители:
Раб Полина Александровна
Полтавец Оксана Викторовна

1. Введение

Год за годом мы становимся свидетелями все новых и новых научных открытий, технических изобретений. Но вот что интересно-независимо от социального статуса. Количества дипломов и знаний люди все так же суеверно продолжают плевать через левое плечо и стучать по деревяшке. «чтоб не сглазить». И, наверное, даже у самого отъявленного скептика при виде разбитого стекла промелькнет-таки мысль, что это не к добру.

Суеверия существуют, с зарождения цивилизации и по сей день. Они настолько вошли в нашу жизнь, что стали неотъемлемой частью нашей натуры. Изучение традиций, примет и суеверий воспитывает в человеке любознательность к истории. Дополнительные знания в области культуры страны изучаемого языка помогу лучше понять эту страну.

Цель работы: Исследовать английские и русские суеверия и приметы, установить сходство и различия, определить их роль в нашей жизни.

Задачи исследовательской работы:

1. Изучить и проанализировать литературу, написанную на данную тему.

2. Проследить историю возникновения суеверий.

3. Составить список суеверий и примет в Великобритании и России.

4. Сравнить и сопоставить суеверия и приметы в русской и английской культуре.

Объект исследования – суеверия и предрассудки.

Предмет исследования – суеверия и предрассудки в Великобритании и России.

Гипотеза - предположим, что русские и английские приметы и суеверия имеют сходства и различия.

Актуальность данного исследования заключается в том, что изучая историю и традиции России и Великобритании, мы приобщаемся к культуре нашей страны и расширяем знания о национальной культуре страны изучаемого языка.

Методы исследования: работа с литературой, сбор информации, анализ исопоставление, описание, опрос, выводы. 

Практическая ценность исследования заключается в использовании материалов исследования на уроках английского языка.

2. Основная часть

2.1. Суеверия и предрассудки

Слово «суеверие» объясняется как «ошибочное, ложное верование во что-либо; вера в причину и следствие, где никакой связи нет». Суеверие - индивидуальный предрассудок, представляющий собой веру в возможность предсказания будущего и влияния на него посредством использования каких-либо потусторонних сил. Приметы - это своеобразные подсказки-предупреждения, которые внимательные люди фиксировали в своем сознании и передавали из поколения в поколение. Источники сегодняшних суеверий: суеверия наших предков; языческие обряды и традиции; предания и легенды; страх перед неопознанным; страх смерти; боязнь получить проклятие, сглаз, болезнь и т.д.

Все приметы основаны на наблюдении за бытом, и правильно сделанных выводах. Многие приметы так прочно вошли в нашу жизнь своеобразным ритуалом, что мы не задумываемся, откуда эти приметы пришли, что явилось причиной их появления. Поэтому многие приметы считаются людьми за суеверия, и поэтому игнорируются. Но тем не менее, во многих странах приметам следуют, однако к различным обстоятельствам в разных странах относятся по-разному.

2.2 План исследования

Наконец, мы подошли к самой главной части нашей работы – исследованию. В ходе исследования мы выявили высокий уровень суеверий: 65% людей в России (68% жителей Великобритании) склонны верить в суеверия и приметы и 35% (32% жителей Великобритании) очень суеверны.

Мы пришли к выводу, что в обеих странах уровень суеверности очень высок.

Мы провели опрос, для того чтобы увидеть какое место занимают суеверия в нашей жизни. Нами было опрошено 75 человек, и мы получили следующие результаты: 98% опрошенных знают, что такое суеверия и предрассудки и только 2% ответили отрицательно. Согласно проведенному опросу: 67% опрошенных - верят в суеверия и 33% не верят в приметы; 28% верят в приметы «на неудачу» и 72% верят «на удачу».

Проанализировав результаты, мы пришли к выводу, что опрошенные нами люди очень суеверны, но верят в приметы «на удачу».

Согласно нашим исследованиям мы выявили сходства между русскими и английскими суевериями и приметами. Например: число 13 - несчастливое; разбитое зеркало приносит несчастье; открытый зонтик в помещении – слезы и несчастье; подкова над дверью – к удаче.

Но, как известно, между английскими и русскими суевериями есть множества различий. Например: черная кошка в России – к неудаче, а в Англии - к удаче; если кошка точит когти о стол, в России к плохой погоде, в Англии к хорошей погоде; постучать три раза по дереву в России к удаче, в Англии к неудаче; увидеть паука в России ассоциировалось с «нечистой» силой и болезнью, а в Англии с богатством.

3. Заключение

Изучив некоторые из суеверий Великобритании и России, мы открыли для себя много нового. Знание культуры, традиций и верований помогает нам ближе познакомиться с нравами другой страны, с ее историей и духовной жизнью, обогатить собственное мировоззрение.

В ходе работы мы сравнили приметы и суеверия России и Великобритании. Суеверия и приметы народов этих стран имеют сходства и различия. Таким образом, в ходе исследования наша гипотеза подтвердилась.

Несмотря на то, что русская культура отличается от английской, и наши страны проходили разный исторический путь, многие приметы и суеверия совпадают. Но Великобритания и Россия, как и любая другая страна, имеет свои суеверия и приметы.

Приметы и суеверия делают нашу жизнь с одной стороны разнообразнее, а с другой – могут усложнить нашу жизнь, если безоговорочно верить в них. Поэтому, ко всему, в том числе и к суевериям, следует подходить с умом, властвуйте над ними, не давая им властвовать над вами. Плохих примет не стоит бояться, а хорошими приметами не нужно пренебрегать.

Практическая ценность нашей работы в том, что информация, полученная нами в ходе работы, позволила нам создать презентацию и короткометражный фильм, которые могут быть использована на уроках не только английского языка, но истории, при изучении традиций, истории и культуры Великобритании и России.

* * *

1. Introduction

There is a good English saying: “So many countries so many customs.” Every country and every nation is rich in traditions and customs which comprise the culture of this nation. People keep and save their traditions, and the largest part of the traditions is connected with national customs and ceremonies. A great number of customs and traditions date back to the early days, and we can justly say that they are the reflection of the country’s history and the people’s psychology. To know the customs and traditions means to understand the people, their art and culture better. Among people’s traditions and customs, we often come across superstitions and prejudices which people can believe or not, but still, they are part of our life, history and culture.

The object is dedicated to study superstitions in English and Russian cultures.

The subject of the study is the most known and commonly used superstitions in Great Britain and Russia.

The hypothesis is the differences between English and Russian superstitions and signs.

Why was the theme chosen by me?

The first reason is that people have been arguing about signs and superstitions for a long time. The problems of superstitions have much disputes, after all when considering these questions are touched such subject as religion, psychology, cultural and spiritual life of the people, questions about predetermination of the fate and uncleanly power.

The second reason is the interest to culture and customs of the other country, in particular Great Britain. For people, studying English and having interest for culture, this subject is particularly curious. The knowledge of traditions, superstition of Great Britain helps better understand English people, their history
and their way of life.

In my opinion, this subject is not so good studied.

The main aim of my work: to study and analyze superstitions of Great Britain and Russia.

Our problems:

  • Make a list of superstition in Russia and Great Britain;
  • Study and analyze different literature, denoted sign and superstition in Russia and Great Britain;
  • Consider, compare and analyze the superstitions in two cultures Russian and English.

I solve these problems through the following methods:

1) Work with literature about superstitions;

2) Collection of information about superstitions in the Internet;

3) Analysis and comparison superstition in English and Russian culture;

4) Pupil’s interrogation

When I prepare my work, I followed such main methods as:

1) Descriptive method;

2) Collection of material;

3) Systematization of material;

4) Studying and analysing;

5) Making a conclusion.

2. Main body

2.1 Science article

Definition of the word «superstition» and reasons why people believe in superstitions

The term superstition came from the Latin superstitio, meaning "to stand over in awe." Superstitious beliefs originated during the earliest days of humanity. Faced with natural phenomena like thunderstorms and earthquakes, as well as the unpredictability of illness and food supply, human beings created an understandable world of powers that could be influenced by action. The earliest superstitions were created as a way to deal with the fear of the unknown. Superstitions are thus a way of attempting to take control over events, when one feels helpless. Often, superstitions are born from casual coincidence. For example, if an athlete wears a particular pair of socks on a day he performs particularly well, he may continue to wear the same pair of socks in the belief that the socks were responsible for the success. Future successes reinforce such a belief. In some cases, it is certainly possible that the simple belief in success or failure can influence the outcome. The athlete who cannot find his "lucky socks" may, due to lack of confidence, perform poorly, further reinforcing the belief in the power of the socks. We tried to choose the most wide-spread superstitions both in Russia and Britain and compare them, point out their similarities and differences.

In Russia there is a superstition that if a black cat crosses your way, it’s a bad luck.

In Great Britain, it’s just the opposite. To meet a black cat means success and good luck. This superstition goes back to the Ancient Egypt, where a cat was a sacred animal and it kept the house and the people who lived there safe and brought peace.

There are a lot of superstitions dealing with birth and death of people, with their wedding and christening. Thus, in Russia many centuries ago a bride should have worn a red dress, not white. “Red” meant “beautiful” («красный» - «красивый»).

In England a bride wore a blue dress, because “blue” meant “true”, “pure”, “sincere”, from the English “True blue”, which means «голубая правда, истина» Only later, under the influence of Greek culture, a wedding costume became white both in Russia and in Great Britain, as this colour in Greece was a colour of innocence and holiness.

In Russia there is a tradition for a bride to wear a brand-new dress, because it is considered that if she wears somebody else’s clothes, she “puts on” somebody else’s fortune and destiny. In Great Britain a bride should wear, as they say, “something old and something new, something borrowed and something blue”. If she follows this rule, her life is sure to be happy. But in both countries there is a belief that it is not lucky to marry in May, especially on Friday and on the 13th. In Russia it is connected with the pronunciation of the word «Май» - «маяться». In England May is the month to make a sacrifice and wear mourning.

What does the word «superstition» mean? If we try to define it, it will be difficult to do it. We can say, for instance, that this faith in that, what in realities does not exist. Really, around us much such, in what people believe and that it is impossible confirm. People believe in real facts, which we consider as a superstition. Superstitions can be defined as, "irrational beliefs, especially with regard to the unknown".

A belief in superstitions gives people an illusion of control in an uncertain world. Many superstitions originated at a time when little was known about how the physical world functions. Now established scientific principles were then shrouded in mystery and often thought to be influenced by unseen mythical forces. New superstitions continue to develop even in today's scientific world.

A superstition is a belief not based on logic or reason. Superstitions often promise to protect someone from harm or affect either their bad or good luck. For example, opening an umbrella in a house leads to bad luck, finding a four leaf clover is good luck, and wearing a special gemstone or crystal will ward off evil. These superstitions have no logical basis, yet they are still followed by millions.

People believe in superstitions because they want to believe in them. They will look for coincidental connections and label them as proof.

Interestingly, a belief in superstitions can actually affect a person's "luck", although what it actually affects is their outlook. Events that are pure chance will not be affected, yet any event that is based on a person's performance can be influenced by their belief in superstitions.

Superstitions are so prevalent among athletes, actors, and students. Some athletes may decide that they have to perform a certain ritual, like turning in three circles before leaving the locker room or wearing a certain pair of lucky socks. Thespians do not wish each other good luck before a play, as that is supposed to have the opposite effect, and instead tell each other to "break a leg".

There are many superstitions that have arisen in every culture. Some superstitions even have opposite meanings in different countries. In the United States, both black cats and the number 13 are unlucky. Yet black cats are lucky in Britain and the number 13 is lucky in Italy.

Though superstitions have some interesting background stories and people believe in them, they all come back to a matter of control. People want to have control over the events in their lives. They will believe in many strange ideas to gain even an illusory sense of control.

 General Superstitions of Great Britain

English traditions, superstitions and beliefs include superstitions and customs of English people. Many of them are now inseparable parts of everyday life, or simply common social etiquette, though they often have their origins in superstition. The awareness of them, and their perceived importance, depends on various factors including region and age. Some are extremely common and practiced by the vast majority of the population, while some are extremely obscure. We tried to choose the most wide-spread superstitions both in Russia and Britain and compare them, point out their similarities and differences. There are different groups of superstitions: superstitions and professions, superstitions and holidays, superstitions and flowers, wedding superstitions.

Superstitions and holidays

We can guess that there are a lot of various superstitions which are connected with Christmas and New Year’s Day. Most of them have roots in long – ago times. To my mind, it’s very useful and interesting to analyze their differences and similarities in Britain and Russia.

Superstitions from Britain:

Christmas superstitions

  • If the wind is blowing on Christmas Day, you are in for a good year.
  • If you want to have good health throughout the next year, eat an apple on Christmas Eve.
  • If you want to be happy, eat Christmas pudding on Christmas Day.
  • If you wear new shoes on Christmas Day, it will bring you bad luck.
  • If you refuse a mince pie at Christmas dinner, you will have bad luck for the coming day.
  • If you cut a mince pie, you'll "cut your luck" too.
  • If a baby is born on Christmas Day, it will have special fortune.
  • You will have as many happy months in the coming year, as the number of  houses you eat mince pies in during Christmas time.

Christmas pudding

It is said puddings should be pre­pared with 13 ingredients to represent Christ and His Disciples

Traditionally, it's lucky to help make the pudding — so every member of the family takes turns to stir the pudding and make a wish. But to preserve good luck, the pudding should be stirred clockwise and with a wooden spoon.

Putting a silver coin in the pudding is another age-old custom that is said to bring wealth, health and happiness to the lucky person who finds it.

New Year superstitions

  • If the first visitor at your house on New Year's Day is an unknown dark-haired man, then a year of good luck will follow.
  • If the first visitor has red hair, it's extremely unlucky. The arrival of a woman is total disaster.
  • If you cry on New Year’s Day, you'll be crying all the year.
  • If you lend anything on New Year's Day, you'll be lending all the year.
  • If you wash your hair on New Year's Day, you'll wash away good luck.
  • If you are in debt and don't pay your debts before New Year's Day, you'll be in debt all the year.
  • If you sweep the floor or dust the furniture on New Year's Day, good fortune will be swept away.

Superstitions from Russia

Christmas Superstitions

  • If you feed birds outside the house, you will be happy in the following year
  • You’ll be unhappy if your first guest is a woman
  • It is recommend to serve 12 kinds of food

New Year’s Day

  • It’s unlucky to break dishes because it can lead to arguments
  • If you are not polite to guests, you won’t have money in the following year.
  • You should forgive enemies
  • You should put a wreath on your door
  • You have to use a white tablecloth because it means kindness and grace
  • If you go to bed early, you will miss your happiness
  • You should leave a glass of wine and a spoon on the table for a brownie

Superstitions and flowers

  •  Holly: The holly tree was known to medieval monks as the "Holy Tree" because it was believed to keep evil spirits away. It was also believed to protect home from lightening.
  • Lily: In Christianity the lily represents purity, chastity, and innocence. White lily bouquets are especially popular in Christian homes during the Easter holiday. Legend says that the lily sprang from Eve's tears, when upon being expelled from Eden she learned she was pregnant. Planting lilies in a garden will protect the garden from ghosts and evil spirits. Russians also believe that Lily is a flower which brings unhappiness.
  • Rose: The rose is the flower emblem of England. If the petals fall from a fresh-cut red rose, bad luck will soon follow. The red rose is the badge of the House of Lancaster and the flower of Eros and Cupid. The white rose is the badge of the House of York and the flower of the Virgin Mary. However, Russians think that the rose is a symbol of grace, beauty and pride.
  • Clover: Clover usually has three leaves, but a few have four. In both countries, Russia and Britain, a clover with four leaves is supposed to bring good luck.

Wedding superstitions

There are so many customs and superstitions associated with weddings.

A lot of wedding traditions go back to folklore and Pre-Christian times and used to protect marrying couples from bad luck and evil spirits.

Britain:

In the past young people couldnot just fall in love and decide to get married. First, they needed to obtain their parents' consent.

The groom didn’t propose in himself but sent his friends or members of his family to represent his interests to the bride and her family. If on the way they saw a blind man, a monk or a pregnant woman during their jour­ney, it was believed that the proposal would not be accepted. If, however, they saw wolves, it was a good sign. The most popular day for wedding is Saturday. In the past, however, choosing when to marry was a serious affair. Saturdays were unlucky, and so were Fridays, espe­cially Friday the 13th.

"Something old" is usually given to the bride by a happily married woman in the hope that her happy marriage will be passed on to the new bride. "Something new" symbolizes the newlyweds' happy and prosperous future. "Something borrowed" is often a valuable item lent by the bride's family which needs to be returned to ensure good luck. "Something blue" is normally a blue ribbon in the bride's hair to symbolize fidelity. The placing of a sil­ver sixpence (an old English coin) or a penny in the bride’s shoe is to ensure future wealth. The last part of the wedding is the reception. Traditionally, guests are offered a wedding cake. Originally, cakes were flat and round and contained fruit and nuts that symbolized fertili­ty. Now wedding cakes have three tiers. The new shape is believed to have been inspired by the unusual spire of Saint Bride's Church in the City of London. The couple makes the first cut together to symbolize their shared future. It is said that if unmarried guests place a piece of wedding cake under their pillow before sleep­ing, it will increase their chances of finding a partner.

Russia

Most wedding ceremonies involve an exchange of wedding vows by the couple, presentation of a gift (offering, ring(s), symbolic item, flowers, money), and a public proclamation of marriage by an authority person or leader. Special wedding garments are often worn, and the ceremony is followed by a wedding reception. A number of cultures have adopted the traditional Western custom of the white wedding, in which a bride wears a white wedding dress and veil. The use of a wedding ring has long been part of religious weddings in Europe and America, but the origin of the tradition is unclear. Historians like Vicki Howard point out that belief in the "ancient" quality of the practice are most likely a modern invention. "Double ring" ceremonies are also a modern practice, a groom's wedding band not appearing in the United States until the early 20th century. The wedding is often followed by a reception, in which the rituals may include toasting the newlyweds, their first dance as spouses, and the cutting of a wedding cake.
There are some popular superstitions in England:

Good Luck

Lucky is to meet a black cat.

Lucky is to touch wood.

Lucky is to find a clover plant with four leaves.

White heather is lucky.

A horseshoe over the door brings good luck. But, the horseshoe needs to be the right way up. The luck runs out of the horseshoe if it is upside down.

Horseshoes are generally a sign of good luck and feature on many good luck cards.

On the first day of the month, it is lucky to say "white rabbits, white rabbits white rabbits," before uttering your first word of the day.

Catch falling leaves in autumn and you will have good luck. Every leaf means a lucky month next year.

Cut your hair when the moon is waxing and you will have good luck.

Putting money in the pocket of new clothes brings good luck.

Bad Luck

 Unlucky is to walk under a ladder.

Seven years of bad luck is to break a mirror.

The superstition is supposed to have originated in ancient times, when mirrors were considered to be tools of the gods.

Unlucky is to see one magpie, lucky to see two and many.

Unlucky is to spill salt. If you do, you must throw it over your shoulder to counteract the bad luck.

Unlucky is to open an umbrella in doors.

The number thirteen is unlucky. Friday the thirteenth is a very unlucky day. Friday is considered to be an unlucky day because Jesus was crucified on Friday.

Unlucky is to put new shoes on the table.

Unlucky is to pass someone on the stairs.

General Superstitions of Russia

Russians are very superstitious and attentive to various omens. The majority of these omens emerged in the pre-Christian era, and neither the traditional religions that arrived in Russia more than 1,000 years ago nor the ideologues of the Communist regime during the almost 70 years of Soviet rule were able to stamp out faith in them.

There are popular superstitions in Russia:

Spit on or touch wood

Like many other peoples, Russians believe in the evil eye—an evil look that brings bad luck or trouble and fear it. You will often see that after someone has said something complimentary about someone else’s child, the child’s parents will appear to spit three times over their left shoulder and touch a wooden surface three times. This will also happen if, for example, someone is telling you about some potentially imminent success, or that, for example, they’re about to go on vacation. Russians are afraid of putting the evil eye on any good event or any compliment, and will touch wood so as not to suffer misfortune. Incidentally, if there is no wood handy, most Russians will tap their own head, saying with a smile that it has the same effect.

Do not carry an empty bucket

If you see someone with any empty container—bucket or a cart—it is considered a bad omen. Russians believe that if you meet a woman carrying an empty bucket, for example, in the countryside, or a street cleaner with an empty cart in the town, you won’t have a good day. That’s why street cleaners try to put any piece of equipment—brooms, rakes or something similar—in their empty carts.

Do not put money into someone’s hands

Russians have a lot of “money” omens. For example, a taxi driver or shop assistant might decline when you try to hand them your money, and ask you to put it on the vehicle’s dashboard or in a special tray next to the till. This does not mean at all that they cannot stomach touching your hands. It is believed that the money can transmit energy from its owner, including negative energy. Once the passenger has left the vehicle and the customer moves away from the till, the link with their energy is broken and someone else can pick up the money without fear.

Do not take anything out of the house at night

If you live under the same roof as Russians, you would be advised not to try to take out the trash at night. It is believed that this can bring ruin on the house.

To avoid having an unpleasant smell spreading through the house, put the rubbish into a more substantial bag and tie it, so that it is more or less sealed.

Do not put empty bottles, keys or change on the table

Russians believe that you must not put empty bottles, keys or change on the table. These are all bad omens of financial loss and tears. Also, this omen works not only in the kitchen at home, but also in public places. If one of the guests at a dinner party in a restaurant grabs a bottle that has just been emptied and puts it under the table or starts looking around for a waiter, it is deference to this omen.

Never give knives, clocks or scarves as a present.

These things are not considered the best present for a Russian. Scarves, for example, are an omen of tears, knives are omens of enemies, and clocks are omens of parting. Even if you are prepared to give a Russian girl a luxurious Hermès scarf as a present, she would prefer to buy it herself, if only to save herself the tears. If you do nevertheless give somebody one of these things, do not be surprised if they give you a small coin in return. This is to create the illusion of buying the item. You must definitely take this coin, even if it surprises you that they are trying to pay you for an expensive gift with small change.

The threshold of a house is a place of evil

You must not stand on the threshold of a house or apartment, and you must not talk across it or hand anything across it. The ancient Slavs believed the threshold was a place where demons dwelled. If, say, you have to sign for a package with a courier, you must either cross the threshold of the house or at least put one foot across it.

Look at yourself in a mirror if you have had to go back

For Russians, going back to the house is a bad omen, a portent of bad luck. So if a Russian discovers after leaving the house that he has forgotten something, he will first decide whether it is something he really needs, and if it is, he will go back, but will make a point of looking in the eye in a mirror. This is another trick of the trade to deceive an evil omen.

Do not sit on a table

Many Russians are disturbed when they see scenes in American films where the hero sits on a table or puts his feet on a table. It is not just because it is unhygienic sitting on a table is variously seen as an omen of death or poverty.

Never give unmarried girls a corner seat

In ancient Russ, it was usually the old maids, poor relatives and dependents who took the humblest places at the table the corner seats. From this developed the idea that if a girl sits at the corner of the table she will not marry for seven years. It is true that if modern girls nevertheless like a corner seat and someone mentions this omen, they will cleverly reply, “My husband will have a corner,” in other words, they will have a home, but regardless, most Russians try not to put girls in corner seats and avoid them themselves.

Sit before a journey

When a guest in someone’s home or a member of the family is getting ready for a long journey, everyone in the house has to sit down before they set off. This scene recalls the children’s game “musical chairs.” There is usually nowhere to sit in the hall, especially with the luggage, but unlike the game, everyone has to sit down, and quickly, as soon as someone says, “Let’s take a seat before the journey.” This is a Russian omen for a safe journey. Everyone in the house has to sit somewhere for a minute. This omen, incidentally, is very useful, because it helps people to calm down after the chaos and remember whether they have forgotten to pack anything.

Good omens

Not all Russian omens are precursors of misfortune. There are also lots of good omens. For example, if a spider or a “message from a pigeon” appears on your clothes, or if, for example, you accidentally step in some dog dirt, do not be in a rush to curse your fate. These are omens of great financial success.

Another amusing omen of wealth comes not from ancient times, but from just a couple of centuries ago. If you find yourself in a car with Russians one day and you’re going to drive under a bridge that a freight train is crossing, don’t be surprised when your companions start to shake out their purses and put money and credit cards on their heads with cries of, “Freight train, give us money, give us money!” According to Russians who believe in omens, this “spell” often works, bringing unexpected profit to those who believe in it.

There are many more Russian omens and superstitions. They cause a lot of everyday inconvenience and it is difficult to remember them all, I can assure you that Russians actually think the same! They too find all these frightening old wives’ tales a torment. But the power of superstitions is that they are passed on from generation to generation. Moreover, often just the realization that they have broken some commandment can change a person’s mood, and their inspiration and success may forsake them for a while.

2.2. Plan of research

General levels of superstitious behavior and belief

The results indicate very high levels of superstitious beliefs and behavior. (Appendix №1).

People were also asked to indicate if they had a background in science. The rank order and percentages of people endorsing these behaviors and beliefs are shown in the table below (Appendix №2).

What sorts of people are superstitious?

People who tend to worry about life are 68% of worried were very superstitious, compared to just 32% of non-worried.

I analyzed all English and Russian superstitions and got these results.(Appendix №3).

1) The current levels of superstitious behavior and beliefs in Great Britain and in Russia are surprisingly high, even among those with a scientific background.
Touching wood is the most popular UK and Russia superstition, followed by crossing fingers, not smashing mirrors and having superstitious beliefs about the number 13.

2) People who are strongly worried for their life more superstitious than people who are less worried for their life I made tests in my school № 30 and analyzed 75 works and got results. (Appendix №4).

My questionnaire consists of these questions:

  • Do you know what superstition is?
  • Have you got any superstitions?
  • Do you believe in «good luck» or «bad luck» superstitions?

I made analyze of this questionnaire and understood that the respondents are superstitious, but they believe in good superstitions.

According to our research, there are some differences and some similarities between Russian and English superstitions (Appendix №5). 

3. Conclusion

We can make a conclusion that superstitions play some roles in people’s life.

Superstitions appeared many years ago. The ancient people tried to explain the world so, which they presented it themselves. It was the reason of the appearance of superstitions. But majority of them practically do not contain the truths, people continue believe in them. The person cannot know all and he will continue to build the guesswork and made the hypotheses about that, as world is made. We all are little superstitious.

Studied some superstitions of Great Britain and Russia, we have opened something new. The knowledge of the culture, tradition and superstitions help me closer to get acquainted with disposition of the other country.

Also we got acquainted with culture, historian, spiritual life of the inhabitants of Russia and Great Britain.

We have analyzed differences and similarities of some Russian and English superstitions and predictions and come to the conclusion that some of the superstitions have the same meaning and origin. However, some superstitions are different and do not have equivalent in the other language.

Now we think that there are a lot of people who believe in omens and signs. In fact, I do not believe in them, but I am sure that we must not forget these signs or ignore them.

We suppose that superstitions are important for us, because they are our culture and history, they were created by our ancestors. In my opinion, our beliefs are monuments of history and culture. Nobody knows how superstitions were created, but so many people believe, respect and follow them.

Superstitions show development of our culture, so it must be value and we must obey and respect them.

Practical value of our work is a creation of presentation about general superstitions in Great Britain and Russia, making a short film and a leaflet which can be used in educational activity.

Приложение 1

Приложение 2.

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5.10.2018