Словообразование в английском языке при помощи суффиксов и префиксов. Пособие по подготовке к сдаче ОГЭ и ЕГЭ

Разделы: Иностранные языки


Введение

Изучение словарного состава современного английского языка является одной из важных задач языкознания. Пополнение языка происходит по разным моделям системы образования новых слов, путем заимствования готовых единиц из других языков, а также за счет расширения объема знаний уже существующих слов при помощи аффиксации, т.е образования слов от уже существующих путем присоединения префиксов и суффиксов. Префиксы стоят в начале слова, а суффиксы – в конце слов.

Главная польза в том, что знание значений приставок и суффиксов значительно увеличивает количество слов, которые мы узнаем при чтении, слушании. Иначе говоря, увеличивается пассивный словарный запас. Приставки (префиксы) изменяют значения слов, но само слово при этом не переходит в другую часть речи. Зная наиболее употребляемые приставки, можно угадывать значение образованных слов, если, разумеется, знакомо исходное слово.

Суффиксы служат для образования одной части речи из другой. Зная какие суффиксы для какой части речи характерны, можно легко понять, какая перед вами часть речи, соответственно это облегчит понимание слов. Суффиксы в английском языке можно разделить на три группы: суффиксы существительных, прилагательных и глаголов. Большинство наречий образуются с помощью только одного суффикса ly (slowslowly)

Приставки можно разделить на две группы: отрицательные и все остальные.

Для чего это пособие?

Это пособие предназначено для подготовки учащихся к сдаче ОГЭ и ЕГЭ, для учебного процесса любого типа и для самостоятельной работы. Одним из пунктов грамматического раздела экзаменационного материала является словообразование. Большинство учебных пособий дает лишь фрагменты словообразования.

Какова структура этого пособия?

Это пособие состоит из четырех разделов. Вводный теоретический раздел дает необходимую классификацию и комментарий по использованию суффиксов и префиксов. Приведенные в каждом параграфе списки наиболее употребляемых слов на данный словообразовательный элемент удобны для повторения.
Второй раздел – это собственно словообразование от наиболее употребляемых слов, образованных от начального слова. Здесь также приводятся примеры употребления вновь образованных слов в предложениях.

Третий раздел пособия – это практические упражнения, построенные по принципу от простого к сложному. Словообразование включает все части речи, что позволяет отрабатывать их в совокупности. Объем тренировочного материала таков, что каждое слово встречается несколько раз, что позволяет усваивать особенности его построения.

Четвертый раздел – ключи к заданиям третьего раздела.

Словообразование. Суффиксы

Суффиксы существительного

Суффикс – adе

Образует существительные со значением действия или процесса, результата, оценки деятельности; образует также названия фруктовых напитков; часто используется в заимствованиях из французского и испанского языков:

Barricade, blockade, cascade, colonnade, lemonade

Суффикс – age

Образует существительные со значением действия , условия или результата, а  также существительные с количественным значением или значением собирательности:

Marriage, usage, herbage, leakage

Суффикс – ance,  -ence

Образуют существительные от глаголов и прилагательных, обозначающие процесс, состояние или свойство:

Frequency, brilliancy

Суффикс –ant

Обозначает профессию или человека, осуществляющего действие:

Applicant, suppliant

Суффикс –cy

Образует отвлеченные существительные со значением качества, условия, состояния:

Legacy, latency, malignancy

Суффикс –dom

Образует абстрактные и собирательные существительные, обозначающие тот или иной общественный статус или явление а также состояние:

Kingdom, freedom, boredom

Суффикс –ee

Образует существительные, обозначающие лицо испытывающее на себе действие, выраженное глаголом, от которого оно образовано; эти существительные часто являются юридическими терминами:

Employee, mortagee, appointee

Суффикс –er

Образует существительные от глаголов или существительных, обозначающие лицо, называемое по роду занятий, профессии, привычкам, привычным занятиям; по взглядам и убеждениям; по происхождению и месту проживания:

Plumber, financier, leader, peacemaker

Суффикс –ery,  -ary  -ry

Образует существительные со значением места, действия, рода занятия или деятельности; а также поведения или связанного с ним качества; образует существительные, обозначающие совокупность людей, предметов, а также некоторое состояние или положение:

Brewery, bindery surgery, robbery, jewellery, crockery, slavery, misery, mastery, pottery

Суффикс – hood

Встречается в существительных, образованных от существительных и от прилагательных; передает значения: состояния; общественного положения; качества, свойства; совокупности людей или семейное положение:

Adulthood, statehood, sainthood, brotherhood, womanhood

Суффикс  -ician

Образует существительные со значением лица по роду деятельности:

Academician, physician

Суффикс  -ics

Образует существительные со значением области науки, техники и т.д.; а также явления, изучаемого данной наукой:

Mathematics, linguistics, aerodynamics

Суффикс  -ique

Выделяется у небольшого числа существительных французского происхождения:

Technique, boutique

Суффикс  -ism

Образует существительные, обозначающие партийное, религиозное или философское течение:

Communism, Buddhism, materialism

Суффикс  -ist

Образует существительные со значением профессии или принадлежности к партии, религии или философскому течению:

Typist, communist, Buddhist, materialist

Суффикс  -ity;  -ety;  -ty

Образует существительные от прилагательных со значением признака, свойства:

Capability, flexibility

Суффикс  -ment

Образует существительные от глаголов, обозначающие действие, процесс или состояние; а также отглагольные существительные со значением результата действия или продукта деятельности:

Measurement, movement, disappointment, improvement, pavement, abolishment

Суффикс -ness

Образует существительные от прилагательных со значением «качество» или «состояние»:

Absoluteness, abruptness, dampness, happiness, absent-mindedness

Суффикс  -pathy

Образует существительные, обозначающие чувства, эмоции:

Antipathy, sympathy

Суффикс -ship

Образует абстрактные существительные от существительных; передаёт значение положения человека в обществе; звание, должность, титул; умение, мастерство, занятие, чувство, отношение к чему-либо; абстрактные понятия:

Captainship, chairmanship, draftsmanship, comradeship fellowship, censorship, citizenship

Суффикс -sion;  -tion;  ation

Встречается в существительных, обозначающих: действие, процесс, состояние; абстрактное понятие; свойство, качество:

Comprehension, admission, transformation, accommodation

Суффикс -ure;  -ture

Образует существительные преимущественно от глаголов латинского происхождения; передаёт значения: процесса, состояния; свойства; абстрактного понятия; сферы деятельности; конкретного предмета:

Departure, creature, imposture, manufacture, picture, furniture

Суффикс -y

Образует абстрактные и собирательные существительные:

Soldiery, bakery, emergency, nationality

Суффикс  -or,  -ator

Встречается у существительных латинского и французского происхождения, обозначающих название действующего лица; образует названия приспособлений или предметов со специальной функцией, а также абстрактные существительные со значением качества, состояния, чувства:

Inheritor, visitor, inventor, tractor, transistor, monitor ,horror, error

Суффиксы прилагательного

Суффикс -able

Образует прилагательные со значением возможности осуществления; обладания некоторым качеством:

Acceptable, passable, drinkable, adaptable, comfortable, lovable

Суффикс -al

Образует прилагательные от существительных преимущественно латинского и греческого происхождения со значением подобия, сходства, обладания некоторым свойством:

Additional, accidental, comical, hysterical

Суффиксы  -an  (-ian,  -ean)

Образует прилагательные и существительные со значением принадлежности к некоторой народности, родовому клану, а также идеалогическому течению, научной школе:

Arabian, Georgian, agrarian

Суффиксы  -ant  -ent

Образует прилагательные от глаголов, обозначающие свойство по данному глаголу:

Radiant, convenient

Суффикс  -ary

Встречается в прилагательных латинского происхождения:

Dietary, secondary, contrary

Суффикс  -en

Часто обозначает сделанный из чего-либо:

Wooden

Суффикс  -ful

Образует прилагательные со значением «обладающий данным качеством»:

Beautiful, wonderful, forgetful

Суффикс  -ar

Образует прилагательные от существительных и глаголов со значением обладания чем-то, сходства с чем-то:

Similar, circular

Суффикс  -ic,  -ical

Образует прилагательные от существительных со значением отрасль знания, науки, сфера деятельности:

Scientific, electronic, technological, technical, cultural

 

Однако есть ряд прилагательных с суффиксами –ic,  -ical, которые вызывают определенную трудность у учащихся:

«electricelectrical

Прилагательное electrical используется для описания систем, отраслей промышленности, компонентов и определённых машин или приборов:

electrical equipment
electrical receiver
electrical engineering

Прилагательное electric описывает явления, связанные с электрическим током и напряжением, атмосферными явлениями, а также более простые приборы и машины:

electric discharge
electric engine
electric light
electric iron
electric atmosphere
economic –economical

Прилагательное economic переводится как экономический и употребляется, когда речь идёт об экономике в смысле народного хозяйства:

economic security
economic crisis
economic risk

Прилагательное economical переводится как «бережливый, расчетливый, экономичный, экономный»:

economicalcar,
economicaluse

Прилагательное classic переводится как «типичный, традиционный, проверенный временем»:

classic mistake
classic example
classic suit
classicclassical

Прилагательное classical переводится как «классический», иногда «античный» в смысле о музыке, литературе, живописи; а также об образовании:

classical music
classical art

Суффикс -ior

Выделяется в некоторых прилагательных латинского происхождения; передаёт оттенок сравнения, сопоставления:

Inferior, prior, superior

Суффикс -ive

Образует прилагательные, обозначающие «относящийся к, принадлежащий, связанный с»:

Native, substantive, creative, destructive

Суффикс -less

Образует прилагательные от существительных со значением лишённый чего-либо, не имеющий чего-либо:

tactless, rootless

Суффикс -ous

Образует прилагательные со значением «обладающий данным свойством, признаком, характеристикой в значительной степени»:

Dangerous, anonymous, various

Суффикс  -y

Образует прилагательные от существительных и глаголов со значением обладания чем-либо; сходства с чем-либо; склонности к чему-либо, а также прилагательные от прилагательных со значением ослабленной интенсивности качества:

Yellowy, dusky

Словообразование.  Префиксы

Префикс  -un

Придаёт противоположное значение:

Toundo, unable, unappreciation

Глаголам, образованным от существительных, придаёт обыкновенно значение «лишать, освобождать от; удалять, извлекать»:

To uncap, to uncart

Префикс  -in,  -il  -im  -ir

Придаёт противоположное значение или отрицание:

Inconsistent, indefinite, independence, illegal, illiterate, immoral, imbalance, imparity, irregular, irrelevant

Префикс  -over

Переводится на русский язык при помощи приставок над-, пере-, сверх-, чрезмерно:

Over-active, over-estimate

Префикс  -dis

Придаёт слову отрицательное значение; указывает на лишение чего-либо:

Disobedient, disorder, dishonest, to disinherit

Префикс -non

Означает отрицание или отсутствие:

Non-alcoholic, non-governmental

Словообразование (с примерами)

Act -  acting, actor, actress, action, actionable, activate, activation, active, actively, activity, activist, activism

He acted without thinking.
He never acts on other people’s advice.
She is the highest-paid actress in Hollywood.
It’s time to put our plan into action.
The alarm is activated by the lightest pressure.
To activate a chemical reaction means to make it happen more quickly, especially by heating.
She is 68 but she is physically very active.
It is nice having a man who actively encourages me to spend money.
He has been a party activist for many years.
There is usually little political activity in August.
His spare-time activities include cooking, tennis and windsurfing.

Accept – accept, acceptable, accepted, acceptability, acceptably, unacceptable, unacceptably

The fact that millions of people live in poverty in one of the richest nations in the world is totally unacceptable.
The report found what is described as “unacceptable of air pollution” in several cities.
The investigation found unacceptably high level of lead in several areas of the city.
So what is an acceptable level of radiation?

Accommodate – accommodation, accommodating

New students maybe accommodated in halls of residence.
We have the 1st and 3rd class accommodation.
Some find it hard to accommodate themselves to the new working conditions.
I’m sure she’ll help us – she is always accommodating.

Adapt – adapted, adaptable, adaptability, adaptation, adaptive, adaptor(-er)

The play has been adapted for children.
Davis is busy adapting Paul Brinkworth’s latest novel for TV.
It took me a while to adapt to new job
Human eyes are very adaptable optical sensors, able to respond to a wide range of light levels
Adaptability is a necessary quality in an ever-changing work environment.

Admire – admirable, admirably, admiration, admirer, admiring, admiringly

I have always admired her paintings.
The police did an admirable job in keeping faus calm.
I think she coped admirably with a very difficult situation.
My admiration of that woman grows daily.
She has got a secret admirer who keeps sending her gifts through the post.
Ann was getting lots of admiring looks in her new red dress.
The women sitting opposite us were gazing admiringly at baby Joe.

Agree agreeable, agreement, agreeably disagree, disagreement

The compromise is agreeable for both sides of the party.
I don’t think you’ll ever get Tony’s agreement to the proposals.
The two sides have reached an agreement to divide the money into the two
equal parts.
Sometimes we disagree on what film to see.
We had a disagreement about the fee for the work.
What a disagreeable young man!
She said some disagreeable things.

Amuse – amusement, amusing, amusingly

I told Helena about what had happened and she was not amused.
I play the piano just for my own amusement.
“Did you like the book?” – “I found it mildly amusing.”
On the subject of childbirth she is amusingly frank.

Annoy – annoyance, annoyed, annoying, annoyingly

Tim really annoyed me in the meeting this morning.
What annoyes me is the way he won’t even listen to other people’s opinion.
Much to our annoyance we couldn’t see anything from the back row of the theatre.
I was so annoyed with him for turning up late that night that I couldn’t speak to him for an hour
It is really annoying when a train is late and there’s no explanation.
They were annoyingly pleased with themselves whenever they got an answer right.

Approve – approving, approvingly, approval, approved, disapprove, disapproval, disapproving, disapprovingly

She wanted to be a fashion model but her parents didn’t approve.
Alan is someone who always needs the approval of other people.
She gave him an approving smile.
She smiled at him approvingly.
I strongly disapprove of lying.
There was a note of disapproval in the teacher’s voice.
They looked at her disapprovingly.

Astonish – astonishment, astonished, astonishing, astonishingly

We were astonished to hear that you had failed the exam.
They looked astonished when I told that I had passed the exams successfully.
Her first novel enjoyed astonishing success.
They solved the problem astonishingly quickly.
I laughed in astonishment when I heard the news.

Attentive – attention, attentively, attentiveness, inattention, inattentive

He has been wholly inattentive to the needs of his children.
Her disappointing results at exam are entirely due to her inattention in class.
I have very attentive and loving parents.
He likes to be the centre of attention.
The children sat listening attentively to the story.

Attractattraction, attractively, attractiveness, unattractive, unattractively, attractive

He was an unattractive man with staring eyes and oddly pale skin.
Life in London has so many attractions – nightclubs, restaurants and so on.
The salary they are offered is very attractive.
She always dresses very attractively.
She doesn’t need to worry about her attractiveness – everyone thinks she is beautiful.
They have very attractive children.

Beauty – beautiful, beautifully, beautify, beautician

Some women spend a lot of money on beauty products.
There were some breathtaking beautiful paintings in the exhibition.
She dresses beautifully.
I’m just going to beautify myself – it should take a few minutes.

Believe – believable, believer, unbelievable, unbelievably, unbeliever, disbelieve

She eats unbelievable amount of food and yet she is really thin.
It was an unbelievably stupid thing to do.
They said that they disbelieved the evidence.
I didn’t enjoy the film because I didn’t think the characters were believable.

Calculate – calculation, calculator, calculated, calculating, miscalculate, miscalculation

In the film she is depicted as a very cold and calculating character.
The calculations that you made contained a few inaccuracies.
We had a lot of food left over from the party because I had miscalculated how much people would eat.
There is an element of calculation in his behaviour that makes me distrust him.
You won’t be allowed to take a calculator into the exam.

Celebrate – celebrity, celebrated, celebration, celebratory

New Year’s celebrations make everybody exited.
We always celebrate my birthday by going out to dinner.
She was celebrated as one of the finest dancers of her generation.
Lots of celebrities were at the film premiere.

Change – changing, changed, changeable, changeless, unchangeable

The weather in Britain is notoriously changeable.
She is a changed woman since she found this new job.
The present day life is remarkable for the rapidly changing nature of contemporary society.
Surrounded by this changeless landscape; one can imagine the world as it was many thousands of years ago.

Child – childhood, childish, childishly, childishness, childless, childlessness

She spent most of her childhood living abroad.
He is only seven – of course his behaviour is childish.
“I won’t go “, she said childishly.
You’re are in the army now and childishness won’t get you anywhere.
Couples who are childless can fell excluded from the rest of society.

Collect – collection, collector, collectable, collected

They sold a valuable collection of coins at the auction.
Comics from the early sixties are highly collectable at the moment.

Colour coloured, colourful, colourfully, colourless, coloured

I like colourful paintings, like Van Gogh’s “Sunflowers”
The old city around the cathedral is the most colourful part of the town. The boys and girls were dressed very colourfully in their traditional folk costumes.
Water in the glass is colourless.

Communicate – communicable, communication, communicator, communicative, miscommunicative

Ideas, emotions or thoughts have to be presented in ways which make them communicable, whether in words, music or art forms.
There is very little communication between mother and daughter.
The communicative ability of the wale is thought to be highly developed.
One of her merits as a communicator and a teacher is the way she shares her own enthusiasm for the subject.

Compare – comparable, comparison, incomparable, incomparably

It was a pleasant beach resort but it wasn’t comparable with the one we stayed at in the Bahamas.
To my mind there’s no comparison between the two restaurants.
He is a man of incomparable kindness and generosity.
His second novel was incomparably better than the first one.

Compete – competition, competitor, competitive, competitively, competitiveness

We are trying to keep our new product a secret from our competitors.
How will such a small firm survive in the competitive world of business?
I lack the competitive spirit. I could never play sports.
There was a competition to find the prettiest baby.

Compose – composer, composition, composed, decompose, decomposition

A composer is a person who writers music: especially classical one.
At music school I studied piano and composition.
He is very composed for a six-year old.
Microbes decompose organic waste into a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide.
The corpse was in an advanced stage of decomposition.

Comprehend – comprehensible, comprehensibly, comprehensibility, comprehension, comprehensive, comprehensively

The article is written in clear comprehensible English.
Comprehension is the ability to understand completely and be aware of a situation, fact…
We offer you a comprehensive training in all aspects of the business.
Lucy goes to the local comprehensive school

Conclude – conclusion, conclusive, conclusively, inconclusive, inconclusively

I found the conclusion of the film rather irritating.
Did you come to any conclusions at the meeting this morning?
They had conclusive evidence of her guilt.
Because the discussion was so inconclusive, we shall have to meet again.
The two days of talks have ended inconclusively.

Connect – connected, connecting, connection, connector, disconnect, disconnected, disconnection

A connecting rod is a rod that joins two particular moving parts in an engine.
He only got a job because of his connections.
Never try to mend a broken machine without disconnecting it from the electricity supply.

Continue – continual, continually, continuous, continuously, continuation, continued, continuing, discontinue, discontinuation, discontinuance, continuance, discontinuity, discontinuous

I’m sorry. I can’t work with these continual interruptions.
They are continually arguing. I really don’t know how long the relationship will last.
My computer makes a continuous low buzzing noise.
You can’t work continuously for six hours without a single break – it is impossible.
It is really a continuation of the bigger river but called by a different name for a few miles.
We demanded the discontinuation of sanctions against our country.
The continued fighting in the city is causing great concern.

Convenient – conveniently, convenience, inconvenience, convenient, inconveniently

The house is conveniently situated near the railway station.
I like the convenience of living so near work – it only takes me five minutes to get there.
We apologized for any inconvenience caused by the late arrival of the train.
Many people find the new post office opening times inconvenient.
The cinema is inconveniently situated on the outskirts of the town.

Correct – correctly, correctness, correction, corrective, correctional, incorrect, incorrectly

Have I pronounced your name correctly?
It is impossible to question the correctness of the data.
She was disappointed to see her composition returned with a mass of corrections.
A correctional centre is another name for a prison.
It would be incorrect for people to use first names at such a formal event.

Crime – criminal, criminality, criminally, criminalize, criminology, criminologist, decriminalization

Criminals should be re-educated as well as punished.
Once you have stolen something, your criminality is established.
It was criminally stupid to drive without proper brakes.
Time spent in prison only criminalizes young people.
Criminology is the scientific study of crime and criminals.

Danger – dangerous, dangerously, endanger

I’ve never played ice hockey – it’s far too dangerous.
The child was playing dangerously near to the edge of the swimming pool.
We must be careful not to do anything that might endanger the economy.

Decide – decision, decisive, decisively, undecided

We have some difficult decisions to make.
The whole question is still undecided.
The decision about whether he is innocent or guilty rests with the jury.

Decorate – decoration, decorative, decoratively, decorator

He is good at cake decoration.
She made a decorative addition to the group.
The shawl was arranged decoratively over the back of the chair.
He founded a firm of painters and decorators.

Defend – defence, defenceless, defencelessness, defendant, defender, defensive, defensible, defensively, defensiveness, defendable, indefensible, indefensibly

When Helen criticized me, Cris came to my defence.
They were quite defenceless against the enemy bombs.
A defendant is a person in a law case who is accused of having done something illegal.
The city defenders were outnumbered by the besieging army.

Definite – definitely, indefinitely, indefinably, indefinable, indefinite, indefinitely, indefinably

Have you definitely decided to go to America?
Messian’s music frequently has an indefinable, musical quality.
The project has been postponed for an indefinite period due to a lack of funds.
Promissed negotiations between the two sides involved in the conflict have been put off indefinitely

Depend – dependent, dependable, dependably, dependability, dependence, dependency, independent, independently, independence

All life is dependent on the sun.
I need someone dependable to look after the children when I am at work.
Drug dependence led to her early death.
An independent research organization was chosen to carry out the ecological study.
Each part of the organization operates independently of the others.

Describe – description, descriptive, indescribable, indescribably

Write a description of your favourite seaside resort.
Her beauty is beyond description.
In the exam we had to write one descriptive essay and one discussion essay.
The pain was indescribable when the horse kicked me.
What an indescribably awful film.

Destroy – destroyer, destruction, destructive, destructively, destructiveness, indestructible

War is a great destroyer.
Many people are very concerned about the destruction of the rainforests.
Lack of trust is very destructive in a relationship.
In the company of other children he behaves very destructively.
Some groups of football fans have a reputation for destructiveness.

Develop – developer, development, undeveloped

The study showed that one in twelve women is likely to develop breast cancer.
The real estate for sale includes 2.000 acres of undeveloped land.

Differ – difference, different, differently, indifferent, indifference, indifferently

There is a great difference between theory and practice.
She seems to wear different every day.
They behave so differently – you’d never believe they were brothers.
He found it very hard teaching a class full of indifferent teenagers.

Direct – direction, director, directorate, directorial, directorship, directionless, directly, indirect, indirectly, directness

Her directness embarrassed him.
She gave directions that she was not to be disturbed.
He was going in the direction of the foresee.
I’m so tired that when I get home I’m going directly to bed.

Distinguish – distinguishing, distinguished, distinguishable, indistinguishable

There are at least twenty distinguishable dialects of the language.
On the beach the English were distinguishable from the Spanish by their paleness.
The main distinguishing feature of the new car is its fast acceleration.
Which of these indistinguishable candidates are you going to vote for?

Divide – divided, division, divisional, divisive, divisiveness, divisible, undivided, indivisible, indivisibly, indivisibility

She found herself divided between her loyalty to her mother and her sense of justice.
The division of the tasks between the team members is still to be decided.
Five is divisible by five and one.
These subatomic particles are thought to be indivisible into smaller particles.

Educate – educated, education, educational, educationist, educative, educator, uneducated educationalist

She was probably the most highly educated prime minister of this country.
As a child he received most of his education at hone.
Reducing the size of classes may improve educational standards.
Most toys for children are designed to be educative in some way.
He was considered an uneducated person because of mistakes in his letters.

Effect – effective, effectively, effectiveness, effectual, effectually, ineffective, ineffectual

It’s a very effective cure for a headache.
The tablets work more effectively if you take a hot drink after them.
There are doubts about the effectiveness of the new drug in treatin the disease.
They wish to promote a real and effectual understanding between the two countries.

Emotion – emotional, emotionally, emotionalism, emotionless

My doctor said the problem was more emotional than physical.
She spoke emotionally about her experiences as a correspondent.
Her face reminded quite emotionless so it was impossible to tell what she thought of my news.

Employ – employable, employee, employer, employment, unemployed, unemployment

I think this computing course will make me more employable in the job market.
An employee is someone who is paid for working for someone else.
Are in employment at the moment?
Fear of unemployment nowadays causes more people to stay in jobs that they hate.

Courage – courageous, courageously, encourage, encouraged, encouraging, encouragingly, encouragement

She is the most courageous police officer that I have ever met.
Encouraged by her school report, Jane decided to apply to Cambridge University.
My mother smiled encouragingly at me as I went up on stage to sing my song.
Your comments have been a great encouragement to us.

Equal – equality, equalize, equalization, equalizer, equally, unequal, unequally

He fought very hard in his lifetime to achieve racial equality.
The inheritance money was shared equally among the children.
They have a rather unequal relationship.

Expect – expectancy, expectant, expectation, expectantly unexpected, unexpectedly

We were expecting a lot of applications for the job, but nowhere near the number who actually applied.
There was a general state of expectancy in the crowd.
He was constantly in expectation of being arrested.
The expectant audience waited in silence for the show to begin.

Experience – experienced, experiential, inexperienced, inexperience, experiment

Martin is a very experienced teacher.
They are inexperienced parents and need support.
Scientists are carrying out an experiment to test the effectiveness of the new drug.

Express – expressed, expression, expressionless, expressionlessly, inexpressive, inexpressibly, inexpressible

He wrote her a poem as an expression of his love.
He thought her reading of the poem was quite expressionless.
The news filled him with inexpressible joy.
Although the shock must have been great, her face remained inexpressive.

Faith – faithful, faithfully, faithfulness, faithless, faithlessly, unfaithful, unfaithfulness

She was a close and faithful friend.
He has served the country faithfully.
She was given a top government position because of her faithfulness to the party.
If someone was unfaithful to me I’d leave him no matter what the circumstances.

Favour – favourable, fauvourably, favoured, favourite, unfavourable, unfavourably, disfavour

She made a favourable impression on me when I first met her.
She impressed him rather favourablyat the interview.
How clever of you to buy chocolate chip cookies – they are my favourites.
The BBC is careful not to show favouritism towards any one political party.

Fear – fearful, fearfully, fearfulness, fearless, fearlessly, fearlessness, fearsome, fearsomely

There was a fearful argument when he demanded his money back.
Fearfully he walked closer to the edge.
They fought fearlessly against invading armies.
Fearsome means causing fear.

Fluent – fluently, fluency

She spoke fluently and with great passion about the need to look after the homeless.
One of the requirements of the job is fluency in two or more foreign languages.

Force – forceful, forcefully, forcefulness, forcible, enforce, enforceable, inforcement, forced, reinforce, reinforcement

She has a very forceful personality which will serve her well in politics.
They were persuaded by the forcefulness of his argument.
An upturned car by the roadside served as  a forcible reminder to me not to drive fast on a country road.
The regulations should always be strictly enforced.
She’s looking for a career in law enforcement.

Forget – forgetting, forgotten, forgetful, forgetfully, forgetfulness, forgettable, unforgettable, unforgettably

She worries because her mother is getting very forgetful.
Beckham scored the only goal in an unforgettable match.
John Wood plays unforgettably the part of the tyrant king.

Frequent – frequently, frequency

The frequency with which he is absent from work is remarkable.
The buses run less frequently on Sundays.
Cases of cancer  are ten times more frequent among nuclear industry workers.

Fresh – freshly, freshness, freshen, refresh, refreshed, refresher, refreshing, refreshingly, refreshment

To refresh something is to make it different and more interesting.
I like freshly baked bread.
She opened the window to freshen up the room.
There is nothing more refreshing on a hot day than a cold lemonade.

Friend – friendless, friendly, friendliness, friendship, unfriendly, unfriendliness

Friendless and jobless, he wondered how he would survive the year ahead.
I’m on quite friendly terms with my parents.
The friendliness of the people here is wonderful?
Their friendship goes back to when they were at school together

Fruit – fruity, fruitfulness, fruitful, fruitfully, fruitless, fruitlessly, fruitlessness

She loved the beauty and fruitfulness of the autumn.
It was the most fruitful discussion, with both sides agreeing to adopt a common policy.
All diplomatic attempts at a peaceful solution to the crisis have been fruitless.

Generous – generosity, generously

He cut me a generous slice of chocolate cake.
Her friends take advantage of her generosity, and stay in her house for months on end without paying her anything
The farmer generously allowed us to camp on his land.

Happy – happily, happiness, unhappy, unhappiness, unhappily

He was happily married with two young children.
It was only later in life that she found happiness and peace of mind.

Harm – harmful, harmfully, harmfulness, harmless, harmlessly, harmlessness

This group of chemicals is known to be harmful   to people with asthma.
Ozone is fairly harmless to people but it hurts plants.

Help – helper, helpful, helpfully, helpfulness, helping, helplessly, helplessness

I’ll need four helpers for this part of the activity.
She is such a pleasant, helpful child.
Unable to swim, she watched helplessly as the child struggled desperately in the water.
We experienced a frightening feeling of helplessness as we saw her wheeled into the operating theatre.

History – historian, historic, historical, historically

A historian is someone who writes about or studies history, who often has qualifications in the subject.
More money is needed for the preservation of historic buildings and monuments.
Many important historical documents were destroyed when the library was bombed.
The film does not try  to be historically accurate, but it is based closely on real events and people.

Home – homeless, homelessness

Accommodation needs to be found for thousands of homeless families.
Surveys show the most common cause of homelessness among women to be domestic violence and breakdown of a relationship.

Honest – honesty, honestly, dishonest, dishonesty, dishonestly

He was known for his dishonest way of making money.
The money was dishonestly obtained.
The court found him guilty of dishonesty.
We appreciated her honesty.

Honour – honourable, honourably, dishonour, dishonourable

The dinner was held in honour of a colleague who was leaving.
I am not sure he has honourable intentions.
They acted honourably and returned the wallet.

Human – humanity, humanly, humanize, humanization, humanism, humanist, humanistic, inhuman, inhumanity, inhumane

Adolf Hitler was guilty of enormous crimes against humanity.
Rescuers are doing everything humanly possible to free the trapped people.
Prisoners of war were subjected to inhuman and degradating treatment.

Humour – humorist, humorous, humorously, humorousless

I think Woody Allen is very humorous.
“It’s all right. I have got another one”,  she said humorously.
David is so humourless. He is unable to see that some things are amusing.

Imagine – imaginable, imaginary, imagination, imaginative, imaginatively, unimaginative

The school offers courses in every imaginable subject.
The child pulled trigger of an imaginary gun.
What a wonderful imagination he must have, to have written such spellbinding stories.
Someone who is imaginative is good at producing ideas or things that are unusual.

Incident – incidence, incidental, incidentally

The attack of defenceless civilians was an isolated incident which will not happen again
Try not to be distracted by trivial incidental details.
Incidentally, I wanted to have  a word with you about your expenses claim.

Inform – informant, information, informational, informative, informed, informer

My informant in the agricultural world tells me that farming methods are changing.
I read an interesting piece of information in the newspaper.
This is an  interesting and highly informative book.
The school promised to keep parents informed.

Invent – inventive, invention, inventively, inventiveness, inventor

He is very inventive, always dreaming up new gadgets for the home.
Our own inventiveness and patience will determine whether we succeed.
TV as we have it now is the product of many inventors, both amateur and professional.

Kind – kindly, kindness, unkind, unkindly, unkindness

Shella has very kindly offered to help out with the food for the party.
The children never received love or kindness from their parents. 
I wanted to thank them for all their kindness.

Legal – legality, legalities, legalise, legalization, legally, illegal, illegality, illegally

It’s illegal to drive a car that is not taxed and insured.
Cocaine, LSD and heroin are illegal drugs.
The legality of smth is the fact that it is allowed by the law.

Moral – moralist, morality, morally, morals, immoral, immorally, immorality

Of course, it’s immoral to cheat someone out of their money.
The beauty of the photographs does not excuse their immorality.
They argued for a new morality  based on self-sacrifice and honesty.

Nation – national, nationality, nationally, nationalism, nationalist, nationalistic

The children were wearing traditional national dress.
At the International School they have pupils of many different nationalities.
They tend to judge things from a very nationalistic viewpoint.

Noise – noisy, noisily, noisiness, noiselessly

A noisy crowd of fans had gathered at the airport to meet their singer’s plane.
Above them an eagle circled in noiseless flight.

Organize – organization, organizer, organized, organization, organizational, disorganized, disorganization

The whole conference was totally disorganized – nobody knew where they were supposed to be or to do.
The article was about the major international aid organizations.
I don’t like going on organized tours.
We were impressed by his organizational ability.

Passion – passionate, passionately, passionless

The Italians are said to be the most passionate people in Europe.
She spoke passionately about her love of opera.
They had a passionless marriage.

Patient – patience, patiently, impatience, impatient, impatiently

He is a good teacher but inclined to be a bit impatient with slow learners.
Patient is a person who is receiving medical care.
There was a queue of people waiting patiently for the bus to arrive.

Possible – possibly, possibility, impossible, impossibly, impossibility

It was impossible that I could have walked by and not noticed her.
He complained of the impossibility of finding a British actor who could play the part.
Working with him can be impossibly difficult.
We did all that we possibly could to persuade her to come.

Predict – predictable, predictably, predictability, prediction, predictive, unpredictable, unpredictably, unpredictability

The weather there can be a bit unpredictable – one minute it’s blue skies and the next minute it’s pouring down.
New infectious diseases, such as AIDS and herpes, have unpredictably appeared.
To everyone’s surprise, his prediction of the severe storm came true.

Prefer – preferable, preferably, preference, preferential, preferentially

Surely a diplomatic solution is preferable to war.
Her preference is for comfortable rather than smart clothes.
People who fly regularly with the airline are given preferential seating.
The bank is investigating claims that some borrowers have been treated preferentially.

Probable – probably, probability, improbable, improbably, improbability

The doctor said that the most probable cause of death was heart failure.
There are lot’s of possible reasons for these symptoms, but it’s probably nothing serious.
I’m afraid there is a high probability that smth has gone wrong.
Do you see that man over there with the improbably large biceps.

Produce – producer, product, production, productive, productively, productivity, reproduce, reproduction, reproductive

A producer is a company, country or person that provides goods.
We saw a quick film showing the various stages in the production of glass.
In order to turn the deserts into fertile and productive land, engineers built 800-mile canal.
Their working system is based on the belief that people work more productively.

Protect – protection, protected, protective, protectively, protectiveness, protectionist, protector, unprotected

Dolphins are a protected species.
Firefighters have to wear protective clothing to stop them getting burned.
He put an arm around her shoulder protectively.
She has a reputation for being an ardent protector of individual’s liberty.

Purpose – purposeful, purposefully, purposefulness, purposeless, purposelessly, purposelessness, purposely

What the company needs is a strong and purposeful manager.
He entered purposefully into the room.
He said that people’s TV-viewing is often purposeless.
The trial has been purposely delayed.

Real – realism, realist, realistic, realistically, reality, realize, realizable, realization, really, unreally, unreal, unreality

He is really going to do it this time.
Realism is a way of thinking and acting based on the facts of a situation and what appears to be possible.
She escaped from reality by going to the cinema every afternoon.
Ten years later her worst fears were realized.

Reason – reasonable, reasonableness, reasonably, reasoned, reasoning, unreasonable, unreasonably, unreasoning

If you tell him what happened I’m sure he’ll understand – he’s a reasonable man.
Stop shouting and let’s discuss this reasonably.
We have a strong team and a reasonable chance of winning the game.

Recognize – recognizable, recognizably, recognition, recognized

Caroline has very recognizable  handwriting.
The quick recognition of disease is vital for effective treatment.
Professor Jones is a recognized authority of an ancient Egypt.
The magazine has a style of writing that is smart and recognizably American.

Respect – respected, respectful, respectfully, respectable, respectably, respectability, irrespective

He is well respected in the business world.
He taught his children to be respectful of other cultures.
His former pupils still respectfully call him “Sir”.
She is a respectable young woman from a good family.

Rest – rested, restful, restfully, restfulness, restless, restlessly, restlessness, unrest

I came back from my trip to the sea feeling rested.
I love the restful sound of the wind in the trees.
She always thought of the house as being a place of great peace and restfulness.
He moved about restlessly, lighting a sigarette and then stubbing it out.

Safe – safely, safety, safeness, unsafe

The house was safely locked up.
With no thought for his own safety, he ran into the burning house to save the child.
I’m a bit worried about the safeness of this machine for children.

Science – scientific, scientifically, scientist, unscientific

The newspaper printed a rather unscientific article of how you inherit characteristics from your parents.
The project has attracted considerable criticism from the scientific community.
I’m afraid, I’m not very scientifically – minded.

Sense – sensibility, sensible, sensitive sensitively sensitivity, sensitiveness, senseless, sensibly

He said it would be senseless to educate a generation for unemployment.
He did not appear to be sensible of difficulties that lay ahead.
We are sensitive to the needs and expectations of our parents.
He was loved for his sensitivity, his gentle wit and his warmth.

Trust – trusted, trustful, trustfully, trustfulness, distrust, distrustful, trusting

The two groups have existed in a state of mutual distrust for centuries.
You must trust your own feelings and decide for yourself.
The child has a trusting smile.

Use – useful, usable, usage, usefully, usefulness, useless, uselessly, uselessness, user

This devise is used to clear blocked sinks.
The specific software is also usable in other areas of research.
Sports equipment is designed to withstand hard usage.
We could usefully spend the free time sightseeing.
Some people think this system of education has outlived its usefulness.

Упражнения и ключи

Список литературы

  1. 4 И (Англ.)
    Л 47
    Леонтьева С.Ф. Отрицательные аффиксы в современном английском языке. Учебное пособие по лексикологии англ. яз. для ин-тов и фак. иностр. яз. М., «Высшая школа», 1974
    103 с. Библиогр.: 101-103
  2. УДК 8II. 111.1 (075.4)
    ББК 81.2 Англ-922
    Шидловская С.Н.
    Ш.56   Английское словообразование = English Word Formation: пособие для подготовки к централизованному тестированию и экзамену/С.Н. Шидловская. – Минск: ТетраСистем, 2010 – 432с.
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    Е.Н. Бортничук, И.В.Василенко, Л.П.Пастушенко
    Словообразование в современном английском языке под редакцией Ю.А.Жлуктенко, д-ра филол.наук, проф.Киев. Издательство при Киевском государcтвенном университете издательского объединения «Вищашкола» 1988
  4. ББК 81.2.2. Англ.
    Г14
    Гузеева К.А. Справочник по грамматике английского языка. Серия «Изучаем иностранные языки» СИS,: Лениздат. «Издательство союз.» 2000. 288с
    ISBN 5-289-01983-9 (Лениздат)
    ISBN 5-94033-038-X («Издательство Союз»)
  5. ISBN AS 019 431 5509
    Hornby Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English

12.11.2018